A: BLM Terms
ABANDONED MILITARY RESERVATION: A military reservation which may be transferred to the Secretary for disposal.
ACCEPTED SURVEY: A survey for which the plat has been accepted for the Director by the officer having Cadastral Survey approval authority.
ACCRETION: The gradual and imperceptible accumulation of land, by natural causes, along the banks of a stream or lake.
ACEC: Area of Critical Environmental Concern. ACECs are areas where special management is needed (a) to protect important historical, cultural, scenic, and natural areas or (b) to identify areas hazardous to human life and property.
ACQUIRED LANDS: Lands in Federal ownership that were obtained by the Government through purchase, condemnation, or gift; or by exchange. One category of public lands.
ADDITIONAL HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry which is made by an individual for public lands additional to those he had already acquired under the homestead laws, the total area covered by his original homestead, and additional homestead entries not exceeding the maximum area allowed for the class of homestead entry involved.
ADJUDICATE: Legal processing of application entries, claims, etc., to assure full compliance with the public land laws and the regulations.
ADJUSTED RAILROAD GRANT: A railroad grant that was completely and totally adjudicated and satisfied prior to the Transportation Act of 1940.
ADMINISTRATIVE SITE: A reservation of lands for use as a site for public buildings, ranger stations, or other administrative facilities by a Federal agency.
ADMINISTRATIVE STATE: Bureau of Land Management State Office having administrative jurisdiction. For example, the Wyoming State Office has administrative jurisdiction for Wyoming and Nebraska.
ADMINISTRATIVE STOCK DRIVEWAY: Grazing-district lands which have been designated, without a formal order of withdrawal, for public use in moving livestock (see STOCK DRIVEWAY WITHDRAWAL).
ADVERSE PROCEEDINGS: Strictly speaking, a contest; offer that portion of the contest proceedings which precede the hearing.
AEC WITHDRAWAL: Public lands withdrawn specifically for use of the Atomic Energy Commission in development and testing of nuclear devices. Similar in nature to a Military Withdrawal in that other uses are restricted and public access is usually prohibited.
AIR NAVIGATION SITE: A reservation of public lands for aviation purposes pursuant to the Act of May 24,1928 (45 Stat. 728, 49 U.S.C. Sec. 214).
ALLOTMENT: An allocation to a Native of land of which he made substantially continuous use and occupancy for a period of 5 years and which shall be deemed the "homestead" of the allottee and his heirs in perpetuity, and shall be inalienable and nontaxable except as otherwise provided by the Congress.
ALLOWED APPLICATION: An application to acquire title to public lands, which has been accepted and approved.
ANIMAL UNIT: A standardized unit of measurement for range livestock that is equivalent to one cow, one horse, five sheep, five goats, or four reindeer, all over 6 months of age.
ANIMAL UNIT MONTH: A standardized unit of measurement of the amount of forage necessary for the complete sustenance of one animal unit for a period of one month; also, a unit of measurement of grazing privileges that represents the privilege of grazing one animal unit for a period of one month.
ANNIVERSARY DATE: The same date and month in succeeding years as that on which the lease became effective.
ANTIQUITIES: Those prehistoric and historic artifacts, objects, structures, ruins, sites, and monuments of cultural or scientific significance generally considered to be more than 100 years old. Those paleontological specimens and sites containing data of scientific importance.
APPLICANT: An individual, corporation, State or local government, etc., applying for rights in, or title to, public lands or resources.
APPLICANT SURVEY: An individual, corporation, State or local government, etc., requesting the execution of a cadastral survey.
APPLICATION: A formal request for rights to use, or obtain eventual title to, public lands or resources.
APPLIED MONEY: See EARNED MONEY.
APPRAISED VALUE AND APPRAISED PRICE: Synonymous with fair market value. The amount of money specified as the minimum acceptable bid in the public notice ordering lands into the market. The determination of appraised value or appraised price is made by experienced, adequately trained, full-time appraisers within the BLM staffs or by contract using standard appraisal practices.
APPROPRIATED PUBLIC LANDS: Original public domain lands which are covered by an entry, patent, certification, or other evidence of land disposal; for certain purposes, public lands which are within á reservation, which contain improvements constructed with the aid of Federal fund, or which are covered by certain classes of leases are also considered appropriated.
APPROVED LIST OR APPROVED CLEAR LIST: A selection which has been approved by the Secretary or the Director. It may serve to pass title.
APPROVED SURVEY: A cadastral survey, the field notes and plat which have been approved by the proper supervising officer (see ACCEPTED SURVEY).
ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SITE: A site that contains either objects of antiquity or cultural values relating to history and/or prehistory that warrant special protection.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: All physical evidence of past human occupation, other than historical documents, which can be used to reconstruct life styles of past peoples. These include sites, artifacts, environmental data, and all other relevant information.
ARTIFACT: Any object made, modified, or used by man.
ASSESSMENT WORK: Work required to hold the possessory right to an unpatented lode or placer mining claim, made after May 10, 1872. Not less than $100 worth of labor must be performed or improvements made thereon annually.
ASSIGNEE: A recipient or grantee. One to whom a thing is given, usually in writing.
ASSIGNMENT: A transfer or a making over to another of a whole or a part of property, either real or personal, or the giving to another of a right.
ASSIGNOR: A person who assigns a right.
AVIATION LEASE: A lease which authorizes the use of public lands for aviation purposes.
AVULSION: A rapid and usually permanent change in a stream channel. Such movements do not create changes in property boundaries except where State interests in lands arising from the Submerged Lands Act (A State's title to lands beneath navigable waters) are concerned.
B: BLM Terms
BANKHEAD-JONES LAND UTILIZATION (L.U.) LANDS: Formerly privately-owned farmlands that were purchased by the Federal government under the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937. These submarginal lands (known as Land Utilization projects, hence L.U.) were originally patented under various agricultural laws, but proved uneconomical to support a family. Upon purchase, they were retired from agricultural use, and are managed generally in the same way as other BLM administered lands.
BASE LANDS: In a lieu selection, the lands to which the applicant relinquishes his rights as a basis for his selection. In an exchange, the lands owned by the proponent.
BASE LINE: A line which runs in an east-west direction from an initial point and from which are initiated other lines for the cadastral survey of the public lands within the area governed by the principal meridian that runs through the same initial point.
BID: A written or oral offer to purchase.
BIG GAME HABITAT: Habitat areas used by big game animals at some time during their yearly life cycle.
BLM WITHDRAWAL: Lands that have been withdrawn from availability under the various land and mining laws for administrative or protective purposes, e.g., recreation sites, office or warehouse sites, etc.
BLOCK: A subdivision of a town site.
BOATING: Includes both motorized and nonmotorized boats. Motorized boating includes tour boats, power boating, river running (commercial and/or noncommercial), etc. Nonmotorized boating includes sailing, canoeing and kayaking, and river running (commercial and/or noncommercial), and other nonmotorized boats such as rowboats.
BONUS: A lump sum paid to the United States by the successful bidder for a mineral lease, such payment being in addition to the rent and royalty obligations specified in the lease.
C: BLM Terms
CADASTRAL SURVEY: A survey relating to land boundaries and subdivisions made to create units suitable for management or to define the limits of title. The distinguishing features of the cadastral surveys are the establishment of monuments on the ground to define the boundaries of the land and their identification in the records by field notes and plats.
CAMPING: Includes auto and trailer camping, along with other camping at developed sites, and backcountry camping.
CARDINAL DIRECTIONS: True north, south, east or west.
CAREY ACTS: A series of acts popularly known as the "Carey Acts" which enables the Government to grant lands to eligible States which may in turn make grants to entrymen who irrigate and reclaim said lands. The Acts of August 18, 1894 (28 Stat. 372), and March 15, 1910 (36 Stat. 237, 43 U.S.C. Sec. 643), which provide for grants of desert lands to States, such lands to be irrigated and reclaimed by the States for disposal to bona fide settlers.
CASH CERTIFICATE: A final certificate which is issued in connection with a cash entry.
CASH ENTRY: An entry that covers public lands for which the entryman paid cash or its equivalent.
CASUAL USE: Activities that involve practices which do not ordinarily cause any appreciable disturbance or damage to the public lands, resources, or improvements and, therefore, do not require a right-of-way grant or temporary use permit.
CEDED INDIAN LANDS: Public lands to which Indian tribal title was relinquished to the United States by the Indians on condition that part or all of the proceeds from their sale or other disposition would be conveyed into the U.S. Treasury and held in trust for the Indians.
CEMETERY-SITE ENTRY: A cash entry of public lands which are to be used for cemetery purposes.
CERTIFICATE OF OWNERSHIP: A certificate from the proper State or county officials showing that title to lands is vested in the State or county and that the officer or agency is empowered by law to lease them.
CERTIFICATION: The act of final approval of a State selection by the Director; also, the document that passes title to the selected lands to the State; also, a document that attests to the truth or authenticity of papers attached to it.
CFR: Code of Federal Regulations.
CIRCULAR: A Bureau of Land Management publication containing regulations and instructions.
CLAIMANT: An individual, corporation, association, state or local government, etc., asserting title to, or rights in, public lands.
CLASSIFICATION: Designation of public lands as being valuable, or suitable, for specific purposes, uses, or resources (see LAND, MINERAL, POWER SITES, and SMALL TRACT).
CLASSIFICATION OF LANDS: The process of determining whether the lands are more valuable or suitable for transfer or use under particular or various public land laws than for retention in Federal ownership for management purposes.
CLEAR LIST: A selection which has been prepared for approval by the Secretary or the Director; also, an official statement from an interested Federal agency or official which indicates that no apparent objection exists to a proposed action with respect to public lands.
CLOSED LAND STATES: The public lands States which no longer have a district land office, i.e., Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, is, Indiana, lowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.
COAL ENTRY: A cash entry, under laws now repealed, covering public lands which contain valuable coal deposits or covering such coal deposits only.
COAL LICENSE: An authorization to mine coal on the public lands free of charge for local domestic use.
COLOR-OF-TITLE: A claim based on an erroneous but good faith claim of title.
COLOR-OF-TITLE ACT: The Act of December 22, 1928 (43 U.S.C. Sec. 1068), as amended. Under the terms and provisions of this Act, a patent may be issued for a parcel of not more than 160 acres of public lands in instances where claim to the lands has been based on a written instrument containing defective evidence of title. The parcel must have been possessed in good faith by a claimant, his ancestors, or grantors for a period of more than 20 years.
COLOR-OF-TITLE ENTRY: A cash entry made by an applicant under the Color-of-Title Act.
COMMISSIONER OF THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE: The official who was the head of the General Land Office.
COMMON USE AREA: A generally broad geographic area from which nonexclusive disposals of mineral materials can be made, with only negligible surface disturbance. The establishment of a common use area does not create a superior right to remove material as against any subsequent claim or entry of the lands.
COMMUNICATION SITE: An area of public land granted to an applicant under authority contained in the Act of March 4,1911 (36 Stat. 1253; 43 U.S.C. 961), and the regulations, to be used for a communication structure or facility.
COMMUNITY: A village, town, or city, or similar subdivision of a State, whether or not incorporated.
COMMUNITY PIT: A site from which nonexclusive disposals of mineral materials can be made. The establishment of a community pit, when noted on the appropriate Bureau of Land Management records or posted on the ground, constitutes a superior right to remove material as against any subsequent claim or entry of the lands.
COMMUTED HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead where the entryman is allowed to pay cash rather than meet all the residence and other requirements.
COMPENSATORY ROYALTY: Money paid by an oil and gas lessee to compensate the Federal Government for the loss of royalty on oil and gas drained from the leased lands through wells on other lands from which the Government receives no royalty or receives royalty at a lower rate than would be paid for production from the leased lands which are being drained.
COMPETITIVE LEASE, OIL OR GAS: An oil or gas mineral lease, covering public lands within a known producing oil or gas field, which is issued to the successful bidder at public auction or through sealed bids.
COMPETITIVE MINERAL LEASING: Refers to leases issued by the United States where there are known minerals or where inference of probable mineralization can be drawn from knowledge of the geology of the land. The lands are offered for lease by competitive bidding after publication of the notice of competitive lease sale. The lease is issued to the highest bidder, who is determined at a sale by public auction. (See also LEASABLE MINERALS and NONCOMPETITIVE MINERAL LEASING.)
COMPETITIVE SALE: An offering open to all qualified purchasers.
COMPLIANCE CHECK: Process by which it is determined that the permittee, grantee, patentee, or other holder of a use authorization, grant, or patent, is or has complied with the terms and conditions of the conveyance or granting document.
CONFIRMATION OF A SUSPENDED ENTRY: The issuance of a patent for a suspended entry where the entryman failed to comply with all requirements under the regulations, but where compliance was substantial enough to warrant the application of principles of equity in order to find the entryman qualified.
CONFLICT: In connection with adjudication, any factor with respect to land status which serves as a bar to the approval of an application. Often, an application or entry which was filed or allowed prior to, or simultaneously with, the filing of another application for similar rights on the same lands.
CONTEST: Formal proceedings against a filing, claim, or entry on charges that it does not comply with the requirements of the public land laws (see GOVERNMENT CONTEST, HEARING, and PRIVATE CONTEST). It may be initiated by the Government or by an adverse claimant.
CONTIGUOUS LAND: Generally speaking, two parcels of land having a common boundary line.
COPYING FEES: Fees which are charged for copies of official records.
CORNERING: Lands having a common survey corner but not a common boundary.
COST RECOVERY: Process for recovery of direct and indirect administrative costs to the United States for a right-of-way or permit incident to a right-of-way. This includes those expenses incurred in processing and monitoring such applications and permits.
CREDIT ENTRY: A cash entry under certain old laws, now repealed, which permitted installment payments (see CASH ENTRY).
CROSSING PERMIT: An authorization issued for trailing livestock across Federal range for proper and lawful purposes.
CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Programs designed to protect, preserve, and/or scientifically study cultural resources and the natural resources that figure significantly in cultural systems. The objectives of such programs should be the conservation and protection of cultural values through management and the scientific study of these resources for the public good.
CULTURAL RESOURCES: Those fragile and nonrenewable physical remains of human activity, occupation, or endeavor, reflected in districts; sites, structures, buildings, objects, artifacts, ruins, works of art, architecture, burial mounds, petroglyphs, and natural features that were of importance in past human events. These resources consist of (1 ) physical remains, (2) areas where significant human events occurred, even though evidence of the event no longer remains, and (3) the environment immediately surrounding the actual resource. Cultural resources are commonly discussed in terms of prehistoric and historic values; however, each period represents a part of the full continuum of cultural values from the earliest to the most recent.
CURATIVE PATENT: A patent which corrects and supersedes a defective patent.
D: BLM Terms
DAMAGES: A pecuniary compensation or indemnity which may be recovered in the courts for loss or injury.
DECISION: In connection with adjudication, a written statement, signed by the appropriate official, setting forth findings as to law or fact with respect to an application, entry, or claim.
DEPENDENT RESURVEY: A cadastral survey which identifies, re-establishes, and remarks the land boundaries that were established by a prior cadastral survey. A retracement and reestablishment of the lines of the original survey in their true original locations according to the best available evidence of the position of the original corners.
DESERT LAND APPLICATION, STATE: An application which is filled by a State pursuant to the Carey Acts for arid irrigable public lands.
DESERT LAND ENTRY: An entry of irrigable, arid, agricultural public lands under the Act of March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. 377, 43 U.S.C. Sec. 321 et seq.), as amended, which the entryman (or his assigns, heirs, or devisees) enters for the purpose of reclamation, irrigation, and cultivation in part, and for which he usually pays $1.25 per acre.
DESERT LAND SEGREGATION, STATE: Arid public lands which have been selected by a State under the Carey Acts and which are set aside pending completion, under State direction, of an irrigation system to reclaim the lands.
DESIGNATION: The official identification and naming of a general area or site on public land. No lands may be designated until they are either (1 ) classified for retention for multiple-use management, (2) withdrawn, or (3) given special status by Act of Congress. See ENLARGED HOMESTEAD DESIGNATION, POWER-SITE DESIGNATION, and STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD DESIGNATION.
DIAGRAM, TOWNSHIP OR SECTION: A standardized drawing of a township or of a section which shows the major legal subdivisions.
DIRECT SALE: A sale to a designated purchaser without competitive bidding.
DIRECTOR: The official who is the head of the Bureau of Land Management, unless otherwise noted. The Director now, among other duties, exercises the functions which were formerly assigned to the Commissioner of the General Land Office and the Director of the Grazing Service.
DISCOVERY, MINERAL: The act of exposing to view a valuable mineral on a mining claim; also, the physical exposure of the mineral vein or lode or other mineral deposit on the ground.
DISPOSAL, LAND: A transaction which leads to the transfer of title to public lands from Federal Government.
DISPOSITION: A transaction which leads to the transfer of title of public lands, and/or resources upon or in these lands, from the Federal Government.
DISTRICT: The specific area of public lands administered by a District Manager.
DISTRICT OFFICE: A local Bureau office under the jurisdiction and direction of the State Office.
DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK GRAZING: Management of public lands for domestic livestock grazing involves the protection, regulated use, and development of forage producing public lands and the management of livestock (cattle, sheep, horses, and goats) use to obtain a sustained yield of forage.
DRIFT: The natural movement of livestock from one range area to another.
E: BLM Terms
EARNED MONEY: Receipts of the Bureau of Land Management which have been covered into the Federal Treasury as Federal funds (see UNEARNED MONEY).
EASTERN STATES: Includes all states bordering on or east of the Mississippi River.
ENDANGERED SPECIES: Any animal or plant species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
ELEVEN WESTERN STATES, THE: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
ENLARGED HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry, not exceeding 320 acres, initiated under the Act of February 19, 1909 (35 Stat. 639), or the Act of June 17, 1910 (36 State. 531, 43 U.S.C. Sec. 218), which provides for the homesteading of nonirrigable agricultural lands in the West (dryland farming).
ENTRY: An application to acquire title to the lands by payment of cash or its equivalent and/or by entering upon and improving the lands (see FINAL ENTRY, ORIGINAL ENTRY, and SELECTION).
ENTRY, ALLOWED: An application to acquire title to public lands that has been approved, either as an original entry or a final entry.
ENTRY, CASH: A final entry where the applicant pays cash or its equivalent.
ENTRY, COMMUTED: A final entry where the applicant pays the statutory price for the lands in consideration for reduction of residence and improvement requirements.
ENTRY, FINAL: An allowed entry where the applicant has compiled with all the requirements of law and regulations.
ENTRY, ORIGINAL: An allowed entry where the applicant is permitted to proceed with earning title to the land.
ENTRY, UNPERFECTED: An allowed original entry where the applicant has not met all of the requirements of the law and/or regulations to permit making final entry for patent.
ENTRYMAN: An individual, corporation, association, State or local government, etc., which has made an entry.
EQUAL VALUE EXCHANGE: An exchange of lands, or interests therein, where valuations show that the interests being exchanged are of equal value.
EQUITABLE ADJUDICATION: The consideration given substantial compliance in the following classes of entries: a) necessary citizenship status not acquired; b) sufficient proof not submitted; c) or full compliance with law not affected within the period authorized; d) or where the final proof of testimony or affidavits of the entryman or claimant were executed before an officer duly authorized to administer oaths but outside the county or land district in which the land is situated; e) and special cases deemed proper by the Director, Bureau of Land Management; provided however, that all errors and informalities are satisfactorily explained as being the result of ignorance, mistake, or some obstacle over which the party had no control, or any other sufficient reason not indicating bad faith.
EQUITABLE TITLE: The right of beneficial use even though the legal title may repose in another. The record ownership may be in the legal owner who has no right or benefit whatever.
ESTOPPEL: In law, the prevention of a person from making an affirmation or denial because it is contrary to an affirmation or denial that he has made previously.
EVIDENCE OF TITLE: A policy of title insurance; or a certificate of title issued by a title insurance company authorized by law to issue same; or an abstract of title prepared and authenticated by a licensed abstractor or abstract company or by the recorder of deeds or other proper officer of the State under his official seal
EXAMINATION: Always involves an on-the-ground inspection.
EXCHANGE: A transaction whereby the Federal Government receives land or interests in land in exchange for other land or interests in land. A trading of public lands (surface and/or subsurface estates) that usually do not have high public value, for lands in other ownership which do have value for public use, management and enjoyment. The exchange may be for the benefit of other Federal agencies as well as BLM.
EXCHANGE LEASE, COAL: An exchange of coal resources when it is in the public interest to shift the impact of mineral operations from leased lands, or portions of leased lands, to currently unleased lands to preserve public resource or social values, and to carry out Congressional directives authorizing coal lease exchanges.
EXCHANGE LEASE, OIL OR GAS: An oil or gas mineral lease which is issued, pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act, in lieu of a lease held by the lessee on August 8, 1946. Also, an oil or gas mineral lease which was issued in exchange for a lease held on August 21, 1935, or for an oil or gas prospecting permit. The provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act relating to the issuance of oil or gas prospecting permits are now repealed.
F: BLM Terms
FAIR MARKET VALUE: The amount in cash, or on terms reasonably equivalent to cash, for which in all probability the property would be sold by a knowledgeable owner willing but not obligated to sell to a knowledgeable purchaser who desires but is not obligated to buy.
FAMILY UNIT: An installation with camping, picnicking, or trailer facilities to serve the needs of one family-sized group.
FARM UNIT: A parcel of public land within a reclamation project which is suitable for a family-size farm and which has been opened to reclamation homestead entry.
FEDERAL LAND: All classes of land owned by the Federal Government.
FEDERAL POWER PROJECT RESERVATION: A reservation of public lands for use in connection with a power development project under the jurisdiction of the Federal Power Commission.
FEES AND COMMISSIONS: Payments in the nature of service charges required by law in connection with an application or entry.
FIELD EXAMINATION: An on-the-ground investigation by the Bureau (or Bureau directed) of selected lands with regard to valuation, land use, application for entry, mineralization, etc.
FIELD NOTES: The official written record of a cadastral survey which gives, among other things, the courses and length of the boundaries, the location and description of corner monuments, and a general description of the lands covered by the cadastral survey.
FILING: An application which has been submitted to the proper official or office. Or, an application pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act.
FILING MINERAL LEASING ACT: A filing which has been submitted pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act.
FINAL CERTIFICATE: A document which evidences that an entryman is entitled to a patent provided that no irregularities are found in connection with his entry. It alone is sufficient to vest title in the would-be patentee.
FINAL PROOF: A statement by the entryman and his witnesses, purporting to prove that the entryman has done all things necessary to perfect his entry.
FINAL REGULATION: Any regulation adopted by the Secretary and published in the Federal Register inclusion in the Code of Federal Regulations.
FIRE SUPPRESSION: Fire control activities concerned with controlling and extinguishing a fire, starting at the time the fire is discovered.
FIRST FORM RECLAMATION WITHDRAWAL: See RECLAMATION WITHDRAWAL.
FISH AND WILDLIFE: Generally, all species of nondomesticated animal life.
FISH AND WILDLIFE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION: Management of public lands for fish and wildlife development and utilization involves the protection, regulated use, and development of habitat on public lands and waters to obtain a sustained yield access to fish and wildlife resources.
FISHABLE STREAM: A stream that currently supports a sport fishery on public lands. These streams are not necessarily accessible to the public.
FISHING: Includes fishing from the shore, and from a boat when the boating is secondary to the fishing activity. Included are warmwater, cold-water, and ice fishing; crabbing; seining; and gigging.
FIVE-ACRE TRACT: See SMALL TRACT, HOMESTEAD ENTRY, and HEADQUARTERS ENTRY.
FIVE-PERCENT FUND: A Federal Treasury account to which is credited five percent of the net proceeds from the sale of public lands to be paid to the States in which the lands sold are located.
FLOOD PLAIN: Land not normally covered by water but which lies in an area subject to inundation.
FLPMA: Federal Land Policy and Management Act of October 21,1976 (Public Law 94-579,90 Stat 2743), commonly called the "Organic Act" for the Bureau of Land Management.
FORCE ACCOUNT FIRE PROTECTION: Fire protection given lands owned, leased, or controlled by the United States and administered by the Bureau of Land Management on which complete fire protection is extended through the use of the protection forces and facilities supervised and operated by the Bureau.
FREE USE PERMIT: A permit to a governmental agency or nonprofit group to use mineral materials, such as sand and gravel, or other resources at no charge.
G: BLM Terms
GAME RANGE: A wildlife refuge for certain game animals.
GENERAL LAND OFFICE (GLO): The agency which was formerly responsible for the execution of the public land laws relating to cadastral surveys, land disposals, and to various other activities with respect to the administration and management of the public lands. Organized in 1812 as a Bureau in the Treasury Department and transferred in 1849 to the Department of the Interior; it was abolished in 1946 when its functions were transferred to the newly created Bureau of Land Management.
GENERAL ORDERS OF WITHDRAWAL, THE: Executive Orders No. 6910 of November 26,1934, and No. 6964 of February 5, 1935, which withdrew for classification all vacant public lands in the 11 western states and certain other public lands, which included the following States: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
GOVERNMENT CONTEST: A contest in which the proceedings have been initiated on the basis of charges preferred by a representative of the United States to declare a claim void (see PRIVATE CONTEST).
GRANT: A gift of public lands, either in quantity or in place. Also, the document or the action which conveys land or an interest in land.
GRANTEE: One to whom a grant is made. The recipient of the right-of-way, patent, deed, or other benefit.
GRANTOR: The person who makes the grant.
GRAZING ACT: An administrative subdivision of a grazing district (Taylor Grazing Act).
GRAZING ADVISORY BOARD: Representatives who serve a grazing district in an advisory capacity, consisting of stockmen who were elected by the livestock operators on grazing district lands within that district.
GRAZING ALLOTMENT: A parcel of grazing district lands which is assigned, pursuant to the Federal range code for grazing districts, to an applicant for grazing privileges within grazing districts or to a group of such applicants.
GRAZING CAPACITY: The total number of animal-unit-months which are available from a given tract of land in one year.
GRAZING DISTRICT, TAYLOR GRAZING ACT: An administrative subdivision of the rangelands under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management established pursuant to Section 3 of the Taylor Grazing Act to facilitate management of their forage resources. Grazing on the public lands within such districts was formerly regulated by the Grazing Service.
GRAZING FEE: The amount of money which is charged for one animal-unit-month on grazing district lands; also, the total amount of money which is charged an operator on account of his grazing allotment or crossing permit.
GRAZING FEE YEAR: March 1 of a given calendar year through the last day in February of the following year.
GRAZING LEASE: An authorization that permits the grazing of livestock on public lands outside the grazing districts during a specified period of time (Section 15 of the Taylor Grazing Act).
GRAZING LEASE LANDS: Lands outside grazing districts that are owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the United States and administered by the Bureau of Land Management, and that are subject to leasing for grazing purposes under the Alaska Grazing Law of March 4,1927; Section 15 of the Taylor Grazing Act of June 28,1934; The Oregon Timber Conservation Act of August 28, 1937; or the Reindeer Act of September 1, 1937.
GRAZING LICENSE: An authorization which permits the grazing of a specified number and class of livestock on a designated area of grazing district lands for a specified period of time, usually not in excess of one year. Grazing licenses are issued to applicants for grazing privileges within grazing districts as a temporary measure pending final adjudication of their applications.
GRAZING PERMIT: An authorization which permits the grazing of a specified number and class of livestock on a designated area of grazing district lands during specified seasons each year. (Section 3 of the Taylor Grazing Act). Grazing permits are issued to applicants for grazing privileges within grazing districts after final adjudication of their applications.
GRAZING SERVICE: The agency which was formerly responsible for the administration of grazing on grazing district lands. Organized in the Department of the Interior after the passage of the Taylor Grazing Act, it was abolished in 1946 when its functions were transferred to the newly created Bureau of Land Management.
H: BLM Terms
HALF SECTION: Any two quarter sections within a section which have a common boundary; usually identified as the north half, south half, east half, or west half of a particular section, e.g., W1/2 Sec. 32 (the west half of Section 32).
HARDROCK MINERALS: Locatable minerals that are neither leasable minerals (oil, gas, coal, oil shale, phosphate, sodium, potassium, sulphur, asphalt, or gilsonite) nor saleable mineral materials (e.g., common variety sand and gravel). Hardrock minerals include, but are not limited to, copper, lead, zinc, magnesium, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, bentonite, barite, feldspar, fluorspar, and uranium.
HEARING, CONTEST: Contest proceedings during which testimony is given by the parties to the contest and their witnesses.
HOMESTEAD ENTRY: An entry initiated under any of the homestead laws, which provide for issuance of patents to entrymen who settle upon and improve agricultural public lands.
HOMESTEAD ENTRY, ORIGINAL: An original entry under the homestead laws; also, the first homestead entry that was made by an individual; also, a homestead entry that was made pursuant to the first homestead law, the Act of May 20,1862 (12 Stat. 392) as codified in Sec. 2289 of the Revised Statutes. (Also see ENTRY, ORIGINAL; STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD.)
HUNTING: Includes big- and small-game hunting, waterfowl hunting, and trapping.
I: BLM Terms
IMPROVEMENTS: Includes any structures or developments of a permanent nature which tend to increase the value of land, such as buildings, fences, clearings, wells, etc.
INDEMNITY LIMITS: In railroad and wagon road grants, the strips of land Iying within a specified distance on each side of, and adjacent to, the primary limits, within which the grantee could make lieu selections for lands lost to the grantee in the primary limits; also, the outside boundaries of these strips.
INDEMNITY SCHOOL SELECTION: See SCHOOL LAND INDEMNITY SELECTION.
INDEMNITY SELECTION: A selection made to compensate for lands that were lost. See LIEU SELECTION.
INDEPENDENT RESURVEY: A cadastral survey which supersedes a prior cadastral survey and which creates and establishes new land boundaries. The new boundaries may, to some extent, be identical with the superseded boundaries. An establishment of new section lines for the public land which are independent and without reference to the corners of the original survey, while, at the same time, preserve the boundaries of alienated lands.
INDIAN ALLOTMENT: An allocation of a parcel of public lands or Indian reservation lands to an Indian for individual use; also, the lands so allocated.
INDIAN FEE PATENT: An Indian patent which conveys fee title to qualified Indians to lands entered under an Indian allotment.
INDIAN HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry which is made by an Indian.
INDIAN LANDS: See CEDED INDIAN LANDS and INDIAN RESERVATION. Lands withdrawn to establish various Indian Reservations throughout the country. The lands are totally under the administration of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the various tribal councils on the reservation.
INDIAN PATENT: A patent which is issued to a native American Indian (and Eskimos in Alaska).
INDIAN RESERVATION: A reservation for the use of native American Indians (and Eskimos in Alaska).
INDIAN TRUST FUND: An account in the Federal Treasury to which money belonging to Indian tribes is credited.
INDIAN TRUST PATENT: An Indian patent which is issued with the condition that title to the land remains for a specified period of time in the United States in trust for the patentee.
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: Management of public lands for industrial development involves the protection, regulated use, and development of public lands in a manner to facilitate the growth and stability of industry, whether offsite or onsite, long term or short term.
INLAND WATER AREA: Includes permanent inland water surface, such as lakes, ponds, and reservoirs having 40 acres or more of the area; streams, sloughs, estuaries, and canals 1/8 Of a statute mile or more in width; deeply indented embayments and sounds, other coastal waters behind or sheltered by headlands, or islands separated by less than 1 nautical mile of water; and islands having less than 40 acres of area.
INTEREST: Ownership in a lease or prospective lease of all or a portion of the record title, working interest, operating rights, overriding royalty, payments out of production, carried interests, net profit share or similar instruments for participation in the benefit derived from a lease.
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT GRANT: A grant made to aid in the construction of roads, canals, railroads, or for other public improvements.
IRRIGATION DISTRICT: A private or state water development project which is administered under State laws; also, the lands embraced within such a project.
ISOLATED OR DISCONNECTED TRACT: A tract of one or more contiguous legal subdivisions completely surrounded by lands held in non-Federal ownership or so effectively separated from other federally owned lands by some permanent withdrawal or reservations as to make its use with such lands impracticable. A tract is considered isolated if the contiguous lands are all patented, even though there are other public lands cornering upon the tract. For sale purposes under R.S. 2455, an isolated tract is a parcel of vacant public lands (not exceeding 1,520 acres) which is surrounded by appropriated public lands and/or private lands. A parcel of vacant public lands completely surrounded by lands held in non-Federal ownership or separated from other federally owned lands by some permanent withdrawal or reservation.
J: BLM Terms
Intentionally left blank.
K: BLM Terms
K.C.L.A.: KNOWN COAL LEASING AREA.
K.G.R.A.: KNOWN GEO-THERMAL RESOURCE AREA. An area in which the geology, nearby discoveries, competitive interests, or other indicators would, in the opinion of the Secretary, engender a belief in men who are experienced in the subject matter that the prospects for extraction of geothermal steam or associated geothermal resources are good enough to warrant expenditures of money for that purpose.
K.G.S.: KNOWN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE. A geological trap in which an accumulation of a valuable mineral product has been discovered by drilling and determined to be productive, the limits of which include all acreage that is presumptively productive.
KINKAID HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry, not exceeding 320 acres (formerly 640 acres), initiated under the Act of April 28, 1904 (33 Stat. 547, 43 U.S.C. Sec. 224), which provides for the homesteading of nonirrigable agricultural lands in parts of Nebraska.
L: BLM Terms
LACHES: Delay attended by or inducing change of condition or relation; a failure to do something which should be done or to claim or enforce a right at a proper time.
LAKE: A natural standing body of water.
LAND AREA: Includes dry land and land temporarily or partially covered by water, such as marshlands, swamps, and river flood plains, streams, sloughs, estuaries, and canals less than 1/8 of a statute mile in width; and lakes, reservoirs, and ponds having less than 40 acres of water-surface area.
LAND CLASSIFICATION, TAYLOR GRAZING ACT: Determination pursuant to the Taylor Grazing Act of the suitability of public lands for land disposal under a particular public land law or other authorized use.
LAND DESCRIPTION: A statement as to the location of a tract of land which is the basis for the identification of the tract on the ground in relation to the public land survey (see LEGAL DESCRIPTION).
LAND STATUS: The information concerning any particular parcel of land, its legal description, its cadastral survey status (surveyed or unsurveyed), the nonfederal rights or privileges which attach to it or its resources, the withdrawals or special laws which apply to it, and other pertinent information which may influence the operation of the public land laws so far as its use or disposition is concerned. The information would include such things as: ownership; claims or applications outstanding; known minerals (if any); withdrawals; or in general, any information that might affect how the land laws would operate with respect to the land.
LEASABLE MINERALS: Oil and gas; oil shale; coal; potash phosphate; sodium; sulphur in Louisiana and New Mexico; gold, silver, and quicksilver in certain private land claims, silica deposits in certain parts of Nevada; and certain minerals under special Acts, i.e., the Acquired Lands Acts (see MINERAL LEASE and MINING CLAIM).
LEASE: An authorization to possess and use public land for a period of time sufficient to amortize capital investments in the land. (See also COMPETITIVE LEASING and NONCOMPETITIVE LEASING.)
LEASE BOND: The bond or equivalent security given the Department to assure payment of all obligations under a lease, exploration license, or license to mine, and to assure that all aspects of the mining operation other than reclamation operations under a permit on a lease are conducted in conformity with the approved mining or exploration plan.
LEAVE OF ABSENCE: The authorized absence of an entryman or a settler for a specified period of time from the public lands upon which he has established residence pursuant to the public land laws.
LEGAL DESCRIPTION: As to any particular parcel of land, the description of its location according to the official plat of its cadastral survey; e.g., Lot 3, SE1/4NW1/4 Sec.6, T.8 N., R.20 W.,5th P.M., Arkansas is the legal description of the following land in Arkansas: Lot 3 of Section 6 and the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 6 of the township which is 18 townships north of the base line of the Fifth Principal Meridian and 20 townships west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. Examples of legal descriptions of lands which were not surveyed according to the rectangular system of surveys included Mineral Survey 6789; Homestead Entry Survey 340, Colorado; and United States Survey 123, Alaska.
LEGAL SUBDIVISION: In a general sense, a subdivision of a township, such as a section, quarter section, lot, etc., which is authorized under the public land laws; in a strict sense, a regular subdivision (see SMALLEST LEGAL SUBDIVISION).
LEGAL TITLE: One enforceable in a court of law, which is apparently complete and perfect and is generally associated with record ownership.
LEGISLATION, WITHDRAWAL IN AID OF: A withdrawal which is made pending enactment of legislation relative to the public lands so withdrawn.
LICENSE: An authority granted by the United States to do a particular act or series of acts upon public lands without the licensee possessing any estate or interest in the land itself.
LIEU SELECTION OR INDEMNITY SELECTION: A selection in exchange for which the applicant relinquishes his rights or title to other lands which he for some reasons cannot or does not wish to acquire or hold. A selection made to compensate for lands that were lost.
LIVESTOCK: Cattle, sheep, horses, burros, and goat.
LOCATABLE MINERALS: Whatever are recognized as minerals by the standard authorities, whether metallic or other substances, and are found in sufficient quantity and quality to justify their location under the Mining Law of 1872, as amended. (See also HARDROCK MINERALS.)
LOCATION: A claim to public lands which is established either by the surrender of scrip or by the initiation of a mining or settlement claim.
LODE CLAIM: A mining claim located for "veins or lodes of quartz or other rock in place" (30 U.S.C.23). Lode claims may extend for 1,500 feet along the strike of the vein or lode and to a maximum of 300 feet on either side of the vein or lode.
LOGICAL MINING UNIT (LMU): An area of land in which the recoverable coal reserves can be developed in an efficient, economical, and orderly manner as a unit with due regard to conservation of coal reserves and other resources. An LMU may consist of one or more Federal coal leases and may include intervening or adjacent lands in which the United States does not own coal. All lands in an LMU are under the control of one operator or lessee, can be developed as a single operation, and are contiguous. Formation of LMUs was authorized by the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1976, which amended the Mineral Leasing Act (30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.) .
LOT: A subdivision of a section which is not described as an aliquot part of the section but which is designated by number; e.g., Lot 2. A lot is ordinarily irregular in shape and its acreage varies from that of a regular subdivision.
LU PROJECT LANDS: Privately owned submarginal farmlands incapable of producing sufficient income to support the family of a farm owner and purchased under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of July 22, 1937. These acquired lands became known as "Land Utilization Projects" and were subsequently transferred from jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to the U.S. Department of the Interior. They are now administered by the Bureau of Land Management.
M: BLM Terms
MASTER TITLE PLAT: The master title plat or ownership plat shows the land which has been patented, the patent numbers, the reservations to the United States as stated in the patent, and the land which is still vacant federal land - often referred to as public domain land. Withdrawals, rights-of-way, national forests, Indian reservations, wildlife refuges and other similar reservations and actions are also shown. Lands which have been patented and then reacquired by the United States are shown on the records as acquired lands.
Master title plats show information concerning one township or if the situation exists where the scale is too small to show complex data, a supplemental plat of not more than four sections pertaining to the base township is prepared at a larger scale.
MATERIAL SITE: The public lands from which sand and gravel may be taken (with the proper permit and authorization) for construction or maintenance of State or Federal-aid highways.
MBF: Thousand board feet. A board foot is a unit of lumber measurement 1 foot long, 1 foot wide, and 1 inch thick, or its equivalent. It is the standard unit of measurement in the logging and lumber industry by which standing timber is measured and sold and manufactured lumber is merchandised.
MEANDER LINE: The traverse of the margin of a permanent natural body of water executed for the purpose of determining the quantity of land remaining after the segregation of the water area. A line established in connection with cadastral surveys, which outlines the sinuosities of the bank or shoreline of a permanent natural body of water.
MILITARY BOUNTYLAND WARRANT: Scrip which was issued as a reward for military service.
MILITARY RESERVATION: A withdrawal for the use of the Department of Defense for military purposes. Lands withdrawn from appropriation under the various land and mining laws for military purposes such as training areas, bombing ranges, etc. Usually closed to public access and use.
MILLSITE: A site located on nonmineral land and used for mining or milling purposes (30 U.S.C. 42). Millsites are limited to 5 acres and may be located either by metes and bounds or by legal subdivision.
MILLSITE ENTRY: A cash entry of nonmineral public lands which are to be used as a millsite for the reduction of ore or in the development of a lode claim.
MINERAL: Organic and inorganic substances occurring naturally, with characteristics and economic uses that bring them within the purview of mineral laws; a substance that may be obtained under applicable laws from public lands by purchase, lease, or preemptive entry.
MINERAL ADVERSE CLAIM: A notice of protest filed by a rival claimant against the approval of a mineral application.
MINERAL APPLICATION: An application to purchase public lands which are held as a mining claim or which are desired as a millsite (see MINERAL ENTRY).
MINERAL CLASSIFICATION: Classification of public lands as being valuable for a specific mineral (or minerals); also, the public lands so classified.
MINERAL ENTRY: A cash entry of public lands which are held as a mining claim or desired as a millsite.
MINERAL IN CHARACTER: Lands where the mineral is ordinarily in sufficient quantity to add to their richness and to justify expenditures for its extraction.
MINERAL LANDS: Public lands which have been designated as containing valuable minerals; or are known to contain, valuable minerals.
MINERAL LEASE: A lease which authorizes the development and production of leasable minerals from public lands. (See COMPETITIVE LEASE, EXCHANGE LEASE, NONCOMPETITIVE LEASE, PRODUCING LEASE, and PROSPECTING LEASE.)
MINERAL LEASING ACT: Act of February 25, 1920 (41 Stat. 437, 30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.), as amended and supplemented.
MINERAL LOCATION: A mining claim.
MINERAL MATERIALS: Minerals such as common varieties of sand, stone, gravel, pumice, pumicite, and clay that are not obtainable under the mining or leasing law but that can be obtained under the Materials Act of 1947, as amended.
MINERAL MONUMENT: A monument which is established in connection with a mineral survey.
MINERAL PERMIT: A permit that authorizes prospecting for certain leasable minerals on public lands described in the permit.
MINERAL PRODUCTION: Management of public lands for mineral production involves the protection, regulated use, and development of public lands in a manner to facilitate the extraction and processing of minerals, whether offsite or onsite, long-term or short-term.
MINERAL RESERVATION: A clause in a patent, certification, deed, or other document of conveyance which retains the grantor the right to all or certain minerals in the land; also, a reservation of federally owned minerals or of public lands which contain minerals (see also MINERAL WITHDRAWAL FOR CLASSIFICATION). Retention of the mineral estate by the grantor of a property; the grantee or patentee owns the land surface but not the minerals.
MINERAL RIGHTS: Rights which attach only to mineral deposits (see SURFACE RIGHTS).
MINERAL SURVEY: A cadastral survey of a mining claim.
MINERAL WITHDRAWAL FOR CLASSIFICATION: A withdrawal of public lands which are potentially valuable for leasable minerals precluding the disposal of the lands except with a mineral reservation clause unless the lands are found, upon examination or by other competent evidence, not to contain a valuable deposit of minerals.
MINIMUM STATUTORY PRICE: The minimum price established by law, for which the lands may be sold.
MINING CLAIM: A mineral entry and appropriation of public land under the Mining Law of 1872, as amended (30 U .S.C.22 etseq.). There are four types of mining claims: lode claims, placer claims, millsites, and tunnel sites. Only tunnel sites may not be patented. A valid lode or placer claim contains a discovery of a valuable mineral deposit subject to location under the Mining Law of 1872. A valid millsite is one that is being used for the support of a mining or milling operation. A valid tunnel site is one that is being diligently worked and maintained. Discovery of valuable minerals, other than leasable or salable minerals, on claimed public land entitles the claimant to a patent for such lands upon the completion of at least $500 in improvements, the payment of $2.50 per acre for placer or $5.00 per acre for lode claims and all other necessary requirements are met. (See MINERAL APPLICATION and MINERAL ENTRY.)
MINING CLAIM LOCATION: The staking and recordation of a lode or placer claim, millsite, or tunnel site on public land. A valid location is one that is properly located, recorded, and maintained under Section 314 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of October 21, 1976, and the mining laws of the state where the claim or site is located.
MINING LOCATION: A mining claim.
MMBF: Million board feet. (See MBF).
MODIFIED COMPETITIVE SALE: A competitive offering at which a bidder or bidders are designated and/or may have the right to meet the highest bid.
MONUMENT, SURVEY: A physical object, such as an iron post or a stone, which marks the location of a point that was established by a cadastral survey.
MOTORIZED RECREATION TRAVEL (OTHER THAN OFF-ROAD VEHICLE): Includes driving for pleasure (driving or riding in motorized land-based vehicles on roads). Vehicles include cars, vans, campers, mopeds, and motorcycles. The primary purpose of the riding or driving, train or bus touring (riding in buses, trains, and similar vehicles), and other motorized travel activities must be for recreation. This does not include interstate highway traffic, nor does it include sight-seeing on major thoroughfares unless there is a quantitative evidence (activity participation survey) that the public lands are being used for these recreation purposes.
MULTIPLE USE: A combination of balanced and diverse resource uses that takes into account the long-term needs of future generations for renewable and nonrenewable resources, including, but not limit to, recreation, range, timber, minerals, watershed, and wildlife and fish, along with natural scenic, scientific, and historical values.
MULTIPLE USE COMPONENT: Section 1 of the Classification and Multiple Use Act lists ten objectives of public land management. The methods of management of the public lands will be governed by the provision of existing laws. The listed objectives as interpreted by the Secretary are as follows:
a. Domestic livestock grazing.
b. Fish and wildlife development and utilization.
c. industrial development.
d. Mineral production.
f. Outdoor recreation.
g. Timber production.
h. Watershed protection.
i. Wilderness preservation.
j. Preservation of public values.
N: BLM Terms
NATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD COUNCIL: A committee which consists of members of District Advisory Boards who are selected by the State Advisory Board Councils to consider, on a national basis; legislation, regulations, and policies with respect to the management of grazing-district lands and to make recommendations thereon.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 (NEPA): Public Law 91-190, 83 Stat. 852.
NATIONAL FOREST: A forest or weathershed reservation which is administered by the Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture for multiple uses including grazing, logging, recreation, etc.
NATIONAL FOREST HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry initiated under the act of June 11,1906 (34 Stat.233; 16 U.S.C. 506), which provided for homesteading within national forests of public lands classified as more valuable for agriculture than for forestry products.
NATIONAL FOREST LIEU SELECTION: A lieu selection which is based on the relinquishment (prior to March 3,1905) of the rights to or the ownership of lands Iying within the exterior boundaries of a national forest.
NATIONAL FOREST EXCHANGE: An exchange whereby the Federal Government received title to lands within a national forest.
NATIONAL MONUMENT: A reservation of lands embracing values and/or objects of historic and/or scientific interest which is administered by the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Disturbing surface uses such as logging and mining are normally restricted.
NATIONAL PARK: A reservation embracing recreational areas which is administered by the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Disturbing surface uses such as logging and mining are normally restricted.
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES: A Federal Government listing of " . . districts, sites, buildings, structures, and other objects significant in American history, architecture, archeology, and culture." The National Register is maintained by the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, and is published in its entirety in the Federal Register each year in February.
NATIONAL RESOURCE LANDS: Original public domain lands which have never left Federal ownership; also lands in Federal ownership which were obtained by the Government in exchange for national resource lands.
NATURAL AREA: An area set aside in an undisturbed state to preserve natural and environmental values.
NATURAL HISTORY RESOURCES: Features of the environment which represent natural phenomena dealing with the development of the earth's surface or the evolution of life and which have scientific values or evoke human interest.
NAVAL RESERVE: A reservation for naval purposes.
NON-BUREAU ENERGY INITIATIVE: A lands and realty action resulting from an application to acquire or use BLM-managed lands for purposes related to the development or the distribution of energy resources.
NONCOMPETITIVE LEASE, OIL OR GAS: An oil or gas mineral lease which is issued to the first qualified applicant for the lease of public lands that are outside of a known producing oil or gas field at the time of application.
NONCOMPETITIVE MINERAL LEASING: Refers to leases issued to qualified applicants for lands not specifically known or presumed to contain mineral or petroleum deposits in quantity. Such leases can be issued on a first-come, first-served basis or through a random drawing procedure. (See also COMPETITIVE MINING LEASING and LEASABLE MINERALS.)
NONCONSUMPTIVE TRIPS: Wildlife-associated recreation which is not fishing, hunting or trapping. Nonharvesting activities, such as feeding, photographing and observing fish and other wildlife, picnicking, camping, etc. are nonconsumptive wildlife activities.
NONEXCLUSIVE SITES: Mineral material disposal areas, such as community pits or common use areas, that are designated, maintained, and managed by the Bureau of Land Management and from which many small disposals are authorized under the Materials Act of 1947, as amended.
NONMOTORIZED RECREATION TRAVEL: Activities that require nonmotorized equipment. Such activities include bicycling, horseback riding, running or jogging, sand sailing, backpacking, hiking, or walking for pleasure.
NONOPERATING REVENUE: Receipts of a miscellaneous nature, such as incidental receipts from taxes, fines, etc., that are not related specifically to, or received in the process of, conducting normal and regular business of the Bureau of Land Management as it pertains to the management of public lands and resources.
NONUSE: An authorization issued to an applicant for nonuse of grazing privileges in whole or part; usually issued for one grazing season.
NOTICE: The communication of a pending action; the notification of parties of actions about to be taken. This is a part of due process.
O: BLM Terms
O&C LANDS: Public lands in Western Oregon that were granted to the Oregon central railroad companies (later the Oregon & California Railroad Company) to aid in the construction of railroads but that were later forfeited and returned to the Federal Government by revestment of title. The term "O&C" lands, as often used, also refers to the reconveyed Coos Bay Military Wagon Road lands, which are public lands in Western Oregon that were once granted to the State of Oregon to aid in the construction of the Coos Bay Military Wagon Road but that were later forfeited and returned to Federal ownership by reconveyance.
OBLIGATIONS: Payments, and amounts which the Government is obligated to pay, for goods and services received (or contracted for future delivery) made from appropriations during the fiscal year indicated.
OCCUPANCY: Actual possession and use of land in something more than a slight or sporadic manner. As defined as a multiple use component, it is the management of public lands for occupancy involves the protection, regulated use, and development of lands as sites for economically and socially useful structures, either publicly or privately owned.
OFFERED LANDS: Public lands in which the Secretary or, under old laws now for the most part repealed, the President had authorized to be sold; also, base lands. The lands owned by the proponent and being offered in exchange.
OFF-ROAD VEHICLE (ORV): Any vehicle capable of, or designed for, travel on or immediately over land, water, or other natural terrain, deriving motive power from any source otherthan muscle. The term excludes(1) any nonamphibious registered motorboat; (2) any fire, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle while being used for official or emergency purposes; and (3) any vehicle whose use is expressly authorized by a permit, lease, license, agreement, or contract issued by the authorized officer or otherwise approved.
OFF-ROAD VEHICLE (ORV) TRAVEL: Driving or riding in off-road areas (including trails). The type of vehicle and its capabilities are secondary to where and how the vehicle is used. The primary purpose of the riding or driving must be for recreation. Off-road travel includes off-road motorcycle and scooter driving, snowmobiling, etc.; specialized craft such as all-terrain vehicles, swamp buggies, and four-wheel drives; and conventional vehicles for off-road or trail purposes.
OLD CASH ENTRY: A cash entry under certain old laws, now repealed, which provided for public sale entries and private entries.
OPENING: An action which permits the submittal of applications for public lands that had not been available for acquisition under the public land laws.
OPENING ORDER: The order which opens the lands to the operation or partial operation of the public land laws. May be a part of the revocation order. It need not be a separate document.
OPERATOR: An individual, group, association, or corporation authorized to conduct livestock grazing on public lands.
ORIGINAL ENTRY: An entry in connection with which the entryman must comply with further requirements of the public land laws before final certificate will be issued. An original entry becomes a final entry upon issuance of a final certificate (see ORIGINAL HOMESTEAD ENTRY).
ORIGINAL HOMESTEAD ENTRY: An original entry under the homestead laws; also, the first homestead entry which was made by an individual (see ADDITIONAL HOMESTEAD ENTRY and SECOND HOMESTEAD ENTRY); also, a homestead entry which was made pursuant to the first homestead law, the Act of May 20,1862 (12 Stat. 392) as codified in Section 2289 of the Revised Statutes.
ORIGINAL PUBLIC DOMAIN: All the lands, regardless of whether they are still in Federal ownership or not, which the Federal Government obtained by cession for the 13 original states (1789-1802), by the Louisiana Purchase (1803), by cession from Spain (1819), by the occupation of the Oregon Territory (1846), by the Mexican Cession (1848), by the purchase from Texas (1850), by the Gadsden Purchase (1853), and by the -purchase of Alaska (1867) . The drainage basin of the Red River of the North, south of the 49th parallel and west of the cessions by the 13 original states, is a part of the original public domain. Authorities differ as to the method and to the exact date of its acquisition by the United States, some holding that it was part of the Louisiana Purchase. The area included within the present boundaries of the State of Tennessee, although included in the cessions of the 13 original states, is usually not considered a part of the original public domain because, by the terms of its cession, the State of North Carolina passed title to only a small acreage in that area to the United States. The United States in turn ceded its unappropriated lands to the State of Tennessee. (See PUBLIC LANDS).
ORIGINAL SURVEY: A cadastral survey which creates land boundaries and establishes them for the first time (see DEPENDENT RESURVEY and INDEPENDENT RESURVEY).
OUTDOOR RECREATION: Includes but is not limited to, hunting, fishing, trapping, photography, horseback riding, picnicking, hiking, camping, swimming, boating, rock and mineral collecting, sight-seeing, mountain climbing, and skiing. As defined as a multiple use component, it is the management of public lands for outdoor recreation; involves the protection, regulated use, and development of public lands having open space values in a manner that will preserve those values and will make them available for appropriate recreation enjoyment by the public.
P: BLM Terms
PALEONTOLOGY: A science dealing with the life of past geological periods as known from fossil remains.
PATENT: A Government deed; a document or instrument that conveys legal title to public lands to the patentee.
RESERVATION: A clause in a patent or instrument of conveyance by which the grantor creates and reserves to himself, some right or interest in the estate granted, which had no previous existence, but is called into being by the patent. The reservation is always in favor of and for the benefit of the grantor, thus a right-of-way grant which exists at the time of the patent is issued and can never amount to a reservation unless the right-of-way is for the benefit of the United States. Otherwise, a valid existing right-of-way should be protected by issuing the patent, "subject to" the right-of-way.
PATENTED: Lands which have been conveyed to private ownership in fee simple, and over which the Federal government exercises no control. In some patents, or "deeds", the mineral rights were retained and are administered by the Bureau of Land Management.
PERMIT: A revocable authorization to use public land for a specified purpose for up to 3 years.
PIERCE ACT: Act of June 23, 1938 (52 Stat. 1033, 43 U.S.C. Secs. 315m-1, 315m-4), which authorizes the Department of the Interior to secure leasehold interest in non-federal lands that are within grazing districts (Taylor Grazing Act) and that are chiefly valuable for grazing and are necessary to promote the orderly use, improvement, and development of grazing districts.
PLACE, GRANT IN: A grant in connection with which the Congress specifically states, or implies, the legal description of the public lands which are granted.
PLACER CLAIM: A mining claim located for "all forms of deposits, excepting veins of quartz or other rock in place" (30 U.S.C.35). A placer claim must generally be located by legal subdivision in conformance with the pubic land survey rather than by metes and bounds. A placer claim is limited to 20 acres per individual, although a placer claim may be up to 160 acres for an association of eight or more persons. Corporations are limited to 20-acre claims.
PLAN OF DEVELOPMENT: The general outline of how a definitely proposed and authorized project is to be implemented.
PLAN OF MANAGEMENT: A plan showing how lands are to be managed after development has progressed to the point where the project is in operation.
PLAT,SUPPLEMENTAL: A (survey) plat which shows new or corrected features for a portion of the area covered by a previous (survey) plat.
PLAT,SURVEY: A drawing which shows the boundaries, subdivisions, acreage, and often topography, improvements, and other features of an area included in a cadastral survey. WYNF-OOt1 (9/95) Page 16 of 26
PLO: See PUBLIC LAND ORDER.
PLUGGED AND ABANDONED: This refers to new wells that have been drilled to total depth during the reporting period and did not encounter oil or gas in paying quantities. (Approved plugging and abandonment may or may not have yet occurred.)
POWERSITE CLASSIFICATION: Classification of public lands as having potential value for water power development; also, the public lands so classified. A classification which in reality is a segregation against the operation of the land laws made by the Federal Power Commission for lands having potential for or needed for power projects and associated transmission lines. Lands classified to benefit transmission lines are open to the operation of the pubic land laws subject to the use for transmission lines.
POWERSITE DESIGNATION: A power site classification which is made under the Act of June20, 1910 (36 Stat. 557A), June 9, 1916 (39 Stat. 218), or February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. 1178).
POWERSITE RESERVE: A reservation of public lands which have potential value for water power development.
POWERSITE WITHDRAWALS: Lands which may have potential for water generated power through the construction of dams. The lands are withdrawn from the general land laws to protect that potential. The withdrawal can be lifted under certain conditions.
PREEMPTION ENTRY: A cash entry, under laws which are now for the most part repealed, made by a claimant who had settled upon and improved public lands.
PREFERENCE RIGHTS: The right of an individual applicant, or class of applicants, to apply for public lands or resources prior to the general public or to assert claims superior to those of other applicants. The right of contiguous landowners to purchase lands placed for sale under R.S. 2455 by meeting the highest bid price or by paying three times the appraised value. In the case of a small tract, the earliest applicant has a preference right of sale or lease under certain conditions. The right of an individual applicant or class of applicants to assert rights or claims to the public lands which rights are not available to the general public.
PRESERVATION OF PUBLIC VALUES: Management of public land for preservation of public values that would be lost if the land passed from Federal ownership involves the protection, regulated use, and development of any public lands having unique or scarce characteristics or site values in a manner to insure their continued availability to the general public, either national or local, temporarily or permanently. It also involves the prevention of avoidable losses and damage, including avoidance of use and development which may require future expenditures for flood protection and flood damage relief.
PRIMARY OR PLACE LIMITS: In railroad and wagon road grants, the strip of land living within a specified distance on each side of, and adjacent to, the right-of-way, within which every odd-numbered section (usually) was granted to the grantee; also, the outside boundaries of this strip.
PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN: A line which runs in a north-south direction from an initial point and from which are initiated other line for the cadastral survey of the public lands within a specified area. Each principal meridian has a correlated base line that runs through the same initial point. Every principal meridian has a distinctive name; e.g. Wind River Meridian and Sixth Principal Meridian.
PRIVATE CONTEST: A contest in which the proceedings have been initiated on the basis of charges preferred by anyone other than a representative of the United States (see GOVERNMENT CONTEST).
PRIVATE EXCHANGE: Strictly speaking, an exchange between the Federal Government and any land owner other than a State.
PRIVATE LAND CLAIM: A claim based on the assertion that the claimant (or his predecessors in interest) derived his right while the land was under the dominion of a foreign government.
PRIVATE LEASES: Private leases (ACQ) refer to oil and gas leases between private parties that are in existence at the time the Federal government purchases the mineral estate along with the surface as part of a Federal Government acquisition, for which a BLM serial number is assigned.
PRODUCIBLE COMPLETIONS (OIL AND GAS): Separate completions existing on producible (i.e., physically and mechanically capable of production of oil and/or gas) or service wells at the end of the reporting period; or, separate completions that are made during the reporting period on newly drilled wells.
PRODUCIBLE LEASES: Leases that have at least one producible well actually located within the lease, as of the last day of the reporting period; includes producible leases that received allocated production from wells located off the lease and which have no producible wells actually located on the lease, as of the last day of the reporting period.
PRODUCIBLE AND SERVICE HOLES: Wells with one or more producible oil or gas service completions.
PRODUCING LEASE, OIL OR GAS: A mineral lease authorizing the development and production of oil or gas from public lands which are within a known producing structure or upon which a discovery of valuable deposits of oil or gas has been made.
PROPOSED REGULATION: Any formal proposal (either proposed rulemaking or final regulation) made to the Secretary by BLM for addition to or amendment of Federal regulations affecting BLM programs.
PROPOSED RULEMAKING: Any proposed regulation published in the Federal Register for public comment and review.
PROSPECTING LEASE, OIL OR GAS: A mineral lease authorizing the development and production of oil and gas from public lands which are not known to contain valuable oil or gas deposits.
PROTEST: A statement of objection to an application, entry, claim, etc.
PROTESTANTS: Those who raise objections but do not have sufficient standing to initiate a contest. Such an objection will be deemed a protest.
PROTRACTION DIAGRAM: A diagram representing the plan of extension of cadastral surveys over unsurveyed public lands based upon computed values for the corner positions.
PUBLIC AUCTION: A sale of land through competitive, usually oral, bidding.
PUBLIC DOMAIN LANDS: Original public domain lands that have never left Federal ownership; also, lands in Federal ownership that were obtained by the Government in exchange for public domain lands or for timber on public domain lands. One category of public land. The lands are administered by the Bureau of Land Management, and are those lands remaining in public ownership after all other needs for special uses have been met, i.e., national forests, parks, withdrawals, grants, etc.
PUBLIC LAND ORDER (PLO): An order affecting, modifying, or canceling a withdrawal or reservation that has been issued by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to powers of the President delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 9146 of April 24, 1942, or No. 9337 of April 24, 1943.
PUBLIC LANDS: Any land and interest in land owned by the United States that are administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management, without regard to how the United States acquired ownership, except for (1) lands located on the Outer Continental Shelf, and (2) lands held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos. Includes public domain and acquired lands. (See definitions.) Vacant, unappropriated, and unreserved public lands, or public lands withdrawn by E.O. 6910 of November 26,1934, as amended, or E.O. 6964 of February 5,1935, as amended, and not otherwise withdrawn or reserved, or public lands within grazing districts established under Section 1 of the Act of June 28,1934 (48 Stat. 1269), as amended, and not otherwise withdrawn or reserved.
PUBLIC LAND LAWS: The body of laws which regulates the administration of the public lands and the resources thereon.
PUBLIC LAND STATES: Refers to the 30 states that made up the public domain at its greatest extent. The states which were created out of the original public domain include these states: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, lowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
PUBLIC VALUE: An asset held by, or a service performed for, or a benefit accruing to the people at large.
PUBLIC WATER RESERVE: A reservation of public land which contain a spring or water hole for purpose of keeping the water available for public use. Pursuant to and under the authority of Sec. 10 of the Act of December 29, 1916, and in aid of pending legislation, the President issued the Executive Order of April 17,1926. This reserved for public use every vacant, unappropriated, and unreserved smallest legal subdivision which contains a spring or waterhole. If the lands are unsurveyed, the reservation covers all lands within 1/4 mile of the spring or waterhole.
Q: BLM Terms
QUANTITY GRANT: A grant in which Congress specifies the number of acres or the general type of public lands which are to be granted. The grantee must then select from the qualifying, available public lands.
QUARTER SECTION: One of the quadrants of a section; normally a quadrangle measuring approximately one-half mile on each side and containing approximately 160 acres, and the southwest quarter of a particular section; e.g. SE1/4 Sec. 6 (the southeast quarter of Section 6).
QUARTER-OUARTER SECTION: One of the quadrants of a quarter section; normally a quadrangle measuring approximately one-fourth mile on each side and containing approximately 40 acres, and usually identified as the northeast quarter, northwest quarter, southwest quarter, or southeast quarter of a particular quarter section; e.g., NW1/4NEl/4 Sec. 10 (the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 10) .
QUITCLAIM DEED, BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT: A document which relinquishes all claim by the United States to land which had been conveyed to it in connection with some transaction with the Bureau of Land Management which had not been consummated.
R: BLM Terms
R&PP: Recreation and Public Purposes Act. (See definition.)
RADIO & AIR FACILITIES: Small public land sites on which air navigational equipment is located. The sites are part of the national VOR radio net which assists in cross-country aircraft navigation. The sites are withdrawn for that specific purpose.
RAILROAD CLAIMS (RELEASED): The lands to which a railroad claim might have attached, and which had not been patented or deeded to bona fide purchasers prior to September 18, 1940. These lands, which might have passed to the railroads, were relinquished by the railroads pursuant to the Transportation Act of 1940.
RAILROAD GRANT: A grant made to a State or corporation to aid in the construction of railroads.
RAILROAD INDEMNITY SELECTION: A lieu selection, which is made by a railroad, based upon rights to railroad grant lands lost to the railroad within the primary limits, selection being made within the indemnity limits (see RAILROAD LIEU SELECTION).
RAILROAD LIEU SELECTION: A lieu selection, which is made by an applicant other than a railroad, for lands lost or relinquished within a railroad grant (see RAILROAD INDEMNITY SELECTION).
RECEIPTS: All money received and credited to the proper account as required by law. Does not include collections held by the U.S. Treasury pending future determination of disposition by the Bureau of Land Management.
RECLAMATION HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry initiated under the Act of June 17,1902 (32 Stat. 338; 43 U .S.C., Sec. 43 et seq.), that provides for the issuance of patents to applicants who settle upon and improve agricultural public land parcels not exceeding 160 acres within reclamation projects.
RECLAMATION PROJECT: A water development project for irrigation of arid lands and for other purposes which is administered by the Bureau of Reclamation, United States Department of the Interior.
RECLAMATION STATES: The public land States in which the Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to function, i.e., Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming (see RECLAMATION PROJECT).
RECLAMATION TOWN LOT: A town lot of a town site which is within a reclamation project.
RECLAMATION WITHDRAWAL: A withdrawal of public lands in connection with a reclamation project.
FIRST FORM: A reclamation withdrawal of public lands that are or may be needed in connection with the construction work and maintenance of a reclamation project. This is segregated from mineral location.
SECOND FORM: A reclamation withdrawal of public lands that are susceptible of irrigation from a reclamation project. This is not segregated from mineral location. The distinction of first and second form withdrawals have recently been eliminated and now all such withdrawals are merely reclamation withdrawals."
RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSE ACT (R&PP): Act of June 14,1926 (44 Stat. 741), as amended, that provides for the purchase or lease of public lands by (a) Federal, State, or local governmental units for any activity that serves the interest of the general public consistent with public policy or (b) nonprofit organizations if the lands are to be used for recreation purposes in an established or proposed recreation project area.
RECREATION RESOURCES: Natural and cultural resources which are used by individuals during leisure time and which provide a change of pace, a change of social environment, and other physical or mental satisfactions.
RECREATION SITES: Relatively small tracts of land which have value for concentrated and intensive recreation use that usually requires construction and maintenance of public facilities.
RECREATION VISIT: A visit to Bureau of Land Management lands and waters by an individual for the purpose of engaging in any activities, except those that are part of or incidental to the pursuit of a gainful occupation, whether for a few minutes or a full day.
RECREATIONAL ENTRY: A cash entry by a State, county, or municipality of public lands which are to be used for public recreational purposes.
RECREATIONAL LANDS: A tract of land usually several thousand acres in size where recreation is or is expected to be a major use.
RECREATIONAL WITHDRAWAL: A reservation of public lands which have been designated as chiefly valuable for recreational purposes and as suitable for State exchange, recreational entry, or recreational lease pursuant to the Act of June 14, 1926 (44 Stat. 741, 43 U.S.C. Sec. 869).
RECTANGULAR SYSTEM OF SURVEYS: The system of cadastral surveys by means of which the original public domain has been, and is being subdivided into townships, sections end sectional subdivisions.
REGISTRAR: An official in the General Land Office District Office.
REGULAR SUBDIVISION: Generally speaking, a subdivision of a section which is an aliquot part of 640 acres, such as a half section of 320 acres, quarter section of 160 acres, and quarter-quarter section of 40 acres (see LEGAL SUBDIVISION).
REGULATION: An administrative statement describing the requirements which an applicant or claimant must meet under particular public land laws and describing the procedures to be followed in the execution of such laws. Many acts passed by Congress are not sufficiently detailed to spell out totally the minute requirements of the law. Regulations which are promulgated pursuant to law are considered by the courts to have equal weight with the law they help to interpret and spell out.
REJECTION: A denial or refusal to accept an application on the grounds that it was not properly filed, or that it conflicts with the public land laws or with public policy.
RELICTION: Land that is uncovered by the gradual subsidence of water.
RELINQUISHMENT: A voluntary surrender of an application, right, or claim. A forsaking, abandoning, renouncing, or giving over a right. When real property is involved, it must usually be in writing.
RENTAL: The amount paid periodically (usually annually) by the holder of a lease or right-of-way grant for the right to use land or resources for the purposes set out in the lease or grant.
RESERVATION: A withdrawal, usually of a more or less permanent nature; also, any Federal lands which have been dedicated to a specified public purpose (but see MINERAL RESERVATION).
RESERVATION LANDS: Includes national parks and monuments, or any other reservations of the United States for the use of or administration by the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, or any agency outside the Department of the Interior.
RESERVED LANDS: Federal lands that are dedicated or set aside for a specific public purpose or program and that are, therefore, generally not subject to disposition under the operation of all the public land laws. (See also REVOCATION and WITHDRAWAL.)
RESERVOIR: A man-made, standing body of water whose water levels may be controlled.
RESTORATION: A revocation of a withdrawal which also effects the opening of the public lands in the withdrawal; also, an action which returns ceded Indian lands to tribal ownership. This is the restoring of the lands to the status of unreserved public lands and it opens them to the operation of the public land laws plus the mining and mineral leasing laws.
RESURVEY: A cadastral survey to identify and re-mark the boundaries of lands that were established by a prior survey.
REVERSION CLAUSE: A clause in an order of withdrawal providing that the lands shall revert to their former status after they have served the purpose for which they are withdrawn; also, a clause in a patent providing that title to the lands shall revert to the United States upon failure of the patentee to use the lands for the purpose stated in the patent.
REVERSIONARY CLAUSE OR REVERTER: A provision in a patent for the lands to return to United States ownership for failure of development or upon the happening of a prescribed event.
REVOCATION: Generally, an action which cancels a previous official act; specifically, an action that cancels a withdrawal. Revocation is usually done in conjunction with restoration, which opens the public lands. It need not necessarily "open" the lands to application/entry.
RIGHT-OF-WAY: A permit or an easement which authorizes the use of public land for certain specified purposes, commonly for pipelines, roads, telephone lines, etc.; also, the lands covered by such an easement or permit. Does not grant an estate of any kind, only the right of use. May also include a site.
RIPARIAN HABITAT: Areas of land directly influenced by permanent water. Lakeshores and streambanks are typical riparian areas. Excluded are such sites as ephemeral streams or washes that do not exhibit the presence of vegetation dependent upon free water in the soil. Wetland and riparian areas are especially important because they are a critical source of biological diversity.
RIPARIAN RIGHTS: The rights of the owners of lands on the banks of watercourses or small lakes, relating to the ownership of soil under the water, and to accretions and relictions.
ROYALTY: Payment to the United States, by a holder of a mineral lease, of a share of his production of minerals from public lands; also, payment by certain lessees of public lands, of a specified percentage of their cash receipts from the leased lands.
RULES OF PRACTICE: The established procedures within the Department of the Interior which govern the conduct of contests, the taking of appeals from official decisions of field officials and the Director, and the proceedings on such appeals before the Secretary.
S: BLM Terms
SALABLE MINERALS: Sand, gravel, stone, soil, and other common-variety mineral materials disposed of through sales at not less than their appraised price or through free-use permits (see definition).
SALE OF MATERIALS: A competitive or noncompetitive sale by contract at not less than the appraised price of materials (timber and mineral) under the Materials Act of 1947, as amended.
SANITARY LANDFILL: A method of disposing of solid waste by spreading the waste in thin layers, compacting to reduce volume, and covering with soil to prevent environmental pollution.
SAWTIMBER: Logs of sufficient size and quality to be suitable for conversion into lumber or veneer.
SCHOOL LAND DEFICIENCY OR LOSS: The amount of land lost by the State, for which it is entitled to make a school land indemnity selections.
SCHOOL LAND INDEMNITY SELECTION: A lieu selection which is made by a State to take the place of school lands which the State could not receive.
SCHOOL LAND PATENT: A patent which is issued to a State to give it additional evidence of title to a school section since title to school sections ordinarily passes to a State merely upon filing of the accepted survey of the lands. Title can automatically pass without issuance of a patent.
SCHOOL LANDS: The lands included in a State grant which was made to aid in the support of common schools. Usually Sections 16 and 36.
SCHOOL SECTIONS: A section of school lands which were granted in place.
SCRIP: A certificate which allows the owner to make a selection of a certain number of acres from vacant, unappropriated public lands.
SECOND FORM RECLAMATION WITHDRAWAL: See RECLAMATION WITHDRAWAL.
SECRETARY: The Secretary of the Interior unless otherwise noted.
SECTION: The major subdivision of a township; normally a quadrangle approximately one mile square containing approximately 640 acres and identified by number; e.g. Sec. 36 (Section 36).
SECTION 3: (See GRAZING PERMIT).
SECTION 15: (See GRAZING LEASE).
SECTION 2289 R.S. HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead entry, not exceeding 160 acres, initiated under the provision of Section 2289 of the Revised Statutes, which provides for the homesteading of agricultural lands.
SEGREGATION: Generally speaking, any action, such as a withdrawal, allowed application, desert land segregation, etc., which suspends the operation of the general public land laws as to particular public lands; as to applications, the effect of certain types of applications which prevent any disposition of the public lands or resources involved until the application is adjudicated. To separate or set apart; to remove lands from the operation of part or all the public land mineral laws.
SELECTED LANDS: The public domain lands sought by the proponent in an exchange.
SELECTION: In general, an application to acquire title to public lands which is submitted by an applicant who acquired the right to apply for public lands by receipt of a grant, by surrender of his own lands in an exchange, by relinquishment of his rights to other lands (lieu selection), by surrender of scrip, or similar means.
SERVICE COMPLETION OR HOLE: Separate service completions that are for the benefit of oil and gas operations, e.g. water disposal, salt water disposal, water injection, gas injection, water source, steam injection, or monitoring.
SITE-BASED RECREATION ACTIVITIES (OTHER THAN CAMPING, HUNTING, OR NONMOTORIZED TRAVEL): Includes sight-seeing (the viewing of scenery, natural, historic, and archaeological sites; landscapes; or other features), picnicking, nature study and photography, mountain climbing and caving, gathering and collecting activities (mushrooms, rocks, and flowers), interpretation (guided and unguided touring, talks, and programs), and other environmental education events.
SMALL GAME HABITAT: Habitat areas used by small game animals (including upland game species) at some time during their yearly life cycle.
SMALL TRACT: A parcel of public lands of five acres or less which has been found to be chiefly valuable for sale or lease as a home, cabin, camp, recreational, health, convalescent, or business site under the Act of June 1,1938 (52 Stat. 609,43 U.S.C. Sec. 782a).
SMALL TRACT CLASSIFICATION: Classification of public lands as being chiefly valuable for sale or lease as small tracts; also, the public lands so classified.
SMALL TRACT LEASE: A parcel of public lands of 5 acres or less that has been found to be chiefly valuable for sale or lease as a home, cabin, camp, recreational, convalescent, or business site under the Act of June 1, 1938.
SMALLEST LEGAL SUBDIVISION: A quarter-quarter section; 40 acres.
SOLDIERS' ADDITIONAL HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A selection which is based on rights of veterans of the Civil War who had made a homestead entry for less than 160 acres to select enough public lands to make up the difference between the area of their homestead and 160 acres.
SPECIAL LAND USE PERMIT (SLUP): A permit that authorizes the use of public land for a purpose not specifically authorized under other regulation or statute or forbidden by law.
SPECIAL PRICING PROGRAM: A schedule of special prices established by the Secretary of the Interior, based upon the fair market value of the property, less public benefit allowance. Used frequently on applications under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act.
SPECIAL SURVEYS: Cadastral surveys that involve unusual application of, or departure from, the rectangular system. They often carry out the provisions of a special legislative act and include such work as small tract surveys; townsite surveys; island and omitted land surveys; homestead, homesite, trade and manufacturing site surveys; also the survey and resurvey of portions of sections.
SPLIT ESTATE: Land in which the ownership of the surface is held by persons, including governmental bodies, other than the Federal government and the ownership of underlying minerals (coal) is, in whole or in part, reserved to the Federal government.
STATE EXCHANGE: Strictly speaking, an exchange between the Federal Government and a State.
STATE GRANT: A grant which is made to a State.
STATE OFFICE: The first-level administrative unit of the Bureau of Land Management field organization. It comprises a geographic area consisting of one or more States.
STATE SELECTION: A selection which is made by a State.
STATUS (LAND): The information concerning a specific piece of land. The information would include such things as: ownership; claims or applications outstanding; known materials (if any); withdrawals; or in general, any information that might affect how the land laws would operate with respect to the land. (See also LAND STATUS).
STOCK DRIVEWAY: A reservation provided for in Sec.10 of the Act of December 29,1916 (39 Stat. 865; 42 U.S.C.300). Lands so withdrawn cannot thereafter be entered (but are open to mining location).
STOCK DRIVEWAY WITHDRAWAL: A reservation of public lands for public use in moving livestock (see ADMINISTRATIVE STOCK DRIVEWAY).
STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT: Western lands that were not suitable for cultivation but were suitable for stock grazing were patented under the Act of December 29,1916 (39 Stat. 863; 43 U.S.C. 291).
STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD DESIGNATION: Classification, prior to the Taylor Grazing Act, of public lands as being suitable for stockraising homestead entry; also, the public lands so classified.
STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ENTRY: A homestead not exceeding 640 acres initiated under the Stockraising Homestead Act, which provided for the homesteading of lands chiefly valuable for grazing and raising forage crops. Minerals in these lands were reserved to the United States. (Stockraising Homestead Act of December 29,1916 (39 Stat. 863,43 U.S.C. 291).) The provisions for stockraising homesteads were by implication repealed by the Taylor Grazing Act.
STREAM WITH FISHERY POTENTIAL: A stream that currently does not support a sport fishery but that could be changed into a fishable steam with management (i.e., stocking, removal of barriers, etc.).
SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM: A court process that orders the production of a document or writing.
SUBSTANTIALLY CONTINUOUS USE AND OCCUPANCY: Contemplates the customary seasonality of use and occupancy by the applicant of any land used by him for his livelihood and well-being and that of his family. Such use and occupancy must be substantial actual possession and use of the land, at least potentially exclusive of others, and not merely intermittent use.
SUPPLEMENTAL PATENT: A patent which is issued to modify a previously issued patent. A deed or patent conveying all coal reserved under the Act of March 3,1909 (35 Stat. 844; 30 U.S.C. 81), or the Act of June 22,1910 (36 Stat. 583; 30 U.S.C. 83-85), such land having been (subsequent to the original patent which reserved the coal) finally classified as noncoal in character. A patent for additional rights not included in the original patent.
SUPPLEMENTAL PLAT: A plat which shows a revised subdivision of one or more sections without a change in the section boundaries or to the survey record.
SURFACE RIGHTS: Rights to lands exclusive of mineral rights.
SURVEY: See ACCEPTED SURVEY, APPROVED SURVEY, BASE LINE, CADASTRAL SURVEY, DEPENDENT RESURVEY DIAGRAM, INDEPENDENT RESURVEY, INITIAL POINT, LAND DESCRIPTION, LEGAL SUBDIVISION, LOT, MINERAL MONUMENT, MINERAL SURVEY, MONUMENT, ORIGINAL SURVEY, PLAT, PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN, RECTANGULAR SYSTEM, and SMALLEST LEGAL SUBDIVISION.
SURVEY APPLICANT: The individual or legal entity requesting the execution of a cadastral survey.
SURVEY MONUMENT: A physical object (iron post, stone, tree, etc.), which marks the location of a point which is established by cadastral survey.
SURVEY PLAT: A plat representing the lines surveyed, established, retraced or resurveyed, showing the direction and length of each line; the relation to adjoining official surveys; the boundaries, description, and area of each parcel of land; and the topography, culture, and improvements within the limits of the survey.
SUSPENDED APPLICATION OR ENTRY: An application or entry upon which adverse action has been deferred for good cause shown.
SUSTAINED YIELD: The achievement and maintenance in perpetuity of a high-level annual, or regular periodic, output of the various renewable resources of the public lands consistent with multiple use.
SWAMP LAND GRANT: A grant of swamp or overflowed lands to the State. This was to encourage such lands reclamation.
T: BLM Terms
TAYLOR GRAZING ACT: Act of June 28,1934, (48 Stat. 1269, 43 U.S.C. Sec. 315), as amended.
TAYLOR GRAZING ACT EXCHANGE: An exchange under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act.
TEMPORARY USE PERMIT: A revocable, non-possessory, non-exclusive privilege, authorizing temporary use of public lands in connection with construction, operation, maintenance, or termination of a project.
THREATENED SPECIES: Any animal or plant species likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a part of its range. (Also see CANDIDATE SPECIES and ENDANGERED SPECIES.) Officially listed pursuant to Section 4 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-205).
TIMBER AND STONE ENTRY: A cash entry covering public lands which are valuable for timber or stone and which are unfit for cultivation.
TIMBER APPLICATION: An application to purchase timber or to secure timber for free use.
TIMBER CULTURE ENTRY: An entry under laws, now repealed, which provided that the entrymen plant and cultivate trees on the public lands which he entered.
TIMBER PRODUCTION: The growth and harvest of trees in forests and woodlands. As defined in multiple use, management of public lands for timber production in development of public forest and woodland areas to obtain a sustained yield of forest products.
TOWN LOT: A subdivision of a town site.
TOWNSHIP: The major subdivision of the public lands the rectangular system of surveys; normally a quadrangle measuring approximately six miles on each side and containing approximately 23,040 acres and identified by its relation to a base line and principal meridian; e.g., Township 5 North, Range 4 West, Boise Meridian, Idaho, or T. 5 N., R. 4 W., B.M., Idaho (the township; which is five townships north of the Boise Meridian base line and four townships west of the Boise Meridian). Ideally, it should be six miles square and contain 36 sections.
TOWNSITE: An area of public land which has been segregated for disposal as an urban development, often subdivided into blocks, which are further subdivided into town lots.
PREEMPTION RIGHTS: A guaranteed right of purchase at the minimum price at any time before the sale, of not exceeding two lots, to an actual qualified resident.
PREEMPTION PROOF: That proof required to qualify for preemption rights.
TRACT BOOKS: The central records which showed the status of the public domain.
TRANSFEREE: A recipient or grantee.
TRANSFEROR: A person who transfers a right.
TRANSPORTATION ACT OF 1940: Act of September 18, 1940 (54 Stat. 954), that allowed the railroads to release any claim it may have remaining against unsatisfied grant lands in return for full commercial rates except for military or naval property and personnel transportation.
TREASURE OR TREASURE TROVE: Gold or silver in coin, plat, or bullion, and loose gem stones and other valuable property, including, but not limited to, vases, cups, ornaments, rings, jewelry, or other articles of art of historical value and interest, but whose primary value is usually considered to be monetary.
TRESPASS: Any occupancy, use or development of the public lands or their resources of the United States without authority.
TRUSTEE DEED: Most often, a deed to a town lot in a townsite.
TUNNEL SITE: A site located for the development of a vein or lode for the anticipated discovery of previously unknown veins or lodes. The locator of a tunnel site is give the right to all veins cut by the tunnel within 3,000 feet of its portal, and to 1,500 feet along the length of each blind vein or lode cut. A tunnel site location lapses if not worked for a period of at least six months.
U: BLM Terms
UNADJUSTED RAILROAD GRANT: A railroad grant that had not been completely adjudicated prior to passage of the Transportation Act of 1940.
UNEARNED MONEY: Receipts of the Bureau of Land Management which are being held pending final determination whether they should be returned to the payor or whether they should be covered into the Treasury as Federal funds (see EARNED MONEY).
UNLAWFUL ENCLOSURE OR OCCUPANCY: Enclosures of public lands made or maintained by any party, association, or corporation without valid claim.
UNNECESSARY OR UNDUE DEGRADATION: Surface disturbance greater than that which would normally result when the same or a similar activity is being accomplished by a prudent person in a usual, customary, and proficient manner that takes into consideration the effects of the activity on other resources and land uses outside the area of activity.
UNPERFECTED ENTRY: An entry that requires further compliance with the public land laws.
UNRESERVED PUBLIC LANDS: Public lands which are not covered by a withdrawal or reservation; for general purposes, the public lands which are not reserved except by the general orders or withdrawal, by a mineral withdrawal for classification, or by inclusion within a grazing district (Taylor Grazing Act), are considered unreserved public lands since they are subject to classification and land disposal under Section 7 of the Taylor Grazing Act.
U.S.C.: United States Code.
USE AUTHORIZATION: Approval of a proposed use for land or resources on the prescribed form or document designated for such use; a document showing permission to use land or the resources thereon; a formalized grant pursuant to a request to use land or resources.
V: BLM Terms
VACANT PUBLIC LANDS: Public land that is not reserved, appropriated, or set aside for a specific or designated purposes. Such land is not covered by any non-Federal right or claim other than permits, leases, rights-of-way, and unreported mining claims. Lands that are not reserved except by the general orders or withdrawal.
VALID CLAIM: A mineral or ore body of sufficient size and quality to justify an ordinarily prudent man in the expenditure of his labor and means in an effort to develop a paying mine.
VALID EXISTING RIGHT: A valid discovery had been made on a mining claim on October 21, 1976, and continues to be valid at the time of exercise.
VALUABLE MINERAL: A deposit of a mineral, ore or substance which is useful in commerce or the arts, occurring in quantity and quality of such ore substance in a vein or lode, the size and continuity of which are such as to justify an ordinarily prudent man in the expenditure of his labor and means in an effort to develop a paying mine.
VISITOR HOUR: A unit used to measure duration of recreation use. A visitor hour involves the presence of a person on a recreation area or site for the purpose of engaging in recreation activities for either continuous, intermittent, or simultaneous periods of time aggregating 60 minutes.
VISUAL RESOURCES: The composite of land, water, vegetation, animals, structures, and other visible features.
W: BLM Terms
WATER RIGHT: The authority, whether by prior ownership, contract, purchase, or appropriation in accordance with State law, to use water for any beneficial use.
WATER SUPPLY: To be adequate, must be sufficient to irrigate successfully and to reclaim all of the irrigable land embraced in an entry.
WATER WELL LEASE: A lease which authorizes the use of a water well which was developed by a holder of an oil or gas mineral lease.
WATER-BASED RECREATION ACTIVITIES (OTHER THAN BOATING OR FISHING): Includes swimming, general water play, water-skiing, ski jumping, platter riding, and other similar activities that occur outside a boat.
WATERFOWL HABITAT: The total acreage of all wetlands, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs on BLM lands. Uplands used for nesting are not included.
WATERSHED PROTECTION: Maintenance of the stability of soil and soil cover and the control of the natural flow of water. As defined as a multiple use, management of public lands for watershed protection involves the protection, regulated use, and development of any public lands in a manner to control runoff; to minimize soil erosion, siltation, and other destructive consequences of uncontrolled waterflows; and to maintain and improve storage, yield quality, and quantity of surface and subsurface waters.
WETLANDS: Permanently wet or intermittently flooded areas where the water table (fresh, saline, or brackish) is at, near or above the soil surface for extended intervals, where hydric wet soil conditions are normally exhibited, and where water depths generally do not exceed 2 meters. Marshes, shallows, swamps, muskegs, lake bogs, and wet meadows are examples of wetlands.
WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS: All unbranded and unclaimed horses and burros using public lands as all or part of their habitat.
WILDERNESS: An area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvement or human habitation, that is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and that (1 ) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man's work substantially unnoticeable; (2) has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation; (3) has at least 5,000 acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; and (4) may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.
WILDERNESS PRESERVATION: Management of public lands for wilderness preservation involves the protection and regulated use of public lands which are in a roadless and primitive condition in a manner to preserve their essential wilderness character.
WILDLIFE REFUGE: A reservation for the protection of wildlife. Lands withdrawn specifically for the management and protection of wildlife, and which are administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
WILLFUL TRESPASS: The voluntary or conscious trespass. The term does not include an act made by mistake or inadvertence. The term includes actions taken with criminal or malicious intent. A consistent pattern of trespass may be sufficient to establish the knowing or willful nature of the conduct, where such consistent pattern is neither the result of mistake or inadvertence. Conduct which is otherwise regarded as being knowing or willful does not become innocent through the belief that the conduct is reasonable or legal.
WINTER SPORTS: Includes ice skating, skiing (downhill and cross-country), snowshoeing, sledding, snowmobiling, and tobogganing as well as activities such as snow sculpture and general snow play.
WITHDRAWAL: An action which restricts the disposition of public lands and that holds them for specific public purposes; also, public lands which have been dedicated to public purposes (see also RESERVED LANDS and REVOCATION).
WOODLANDS: Forest lands usually supporting open-grown, widely scattered trees of marginal merchantability and generally more valuable for watershed or wildlife protection purposes than for the production of timber for commercial purposes.
XYZ: BLM Terms
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